1. Crude Oil Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons derived from petroleum. It is a complex mixture of alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and heterocyclics, among others. Crude oil is primarily composed of paraffin, naphthenes, olefins, aromatic compounds, and sulfur-containing compounds.
2. Gasoline Gasoline is a mixture of volatile hydrocarbons produced by the distillation of crude oil. It consists mainly of ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane, benzene, toluene, xylene, and many other components.
3. Diesel Fuel Diesel fuel is a refined version of gasoline. It is a highly flammable liquid consisting of carbon chains with oxygen atoms attached to them. It is a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons, including naphtha, kerosene, gas oil, and diesel oil.
4. Kerosene Kerosene is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid obtained by fractional distillation of crude oil and natural gas. It is a mixture containing various hydrocarbon compounds, including paraffin waxes, naphthene, and phenanthrene.
5. Naphtha Naphtha is a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds with varying degrees of saturation. It is a colorless, transparent, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. It is a mixture consisting of straight-chain alkanes, branched alkanes, and cycloparaffins.
6. Lubricating Oils Lubricating oils are mixtures of hydrocarbons that serve as lubricants for machinery. They are used in engines, transmissions, and bearings. They consist of long-chain hydrocarbons (paraffin) and short-chain hydrocarbons.
7. Motor Oil Motor oil is a thick, dark-colored fluid that serves as a lubricant for internal combustion engines. It is used to reduce friction between moving parts inside the engine. It is a mixture composed of several different types of hydrocarbons.